In 2004 Mark Warschauer (University of California) published research that focussed less on infrastructure and more on the ability to use equipment. There are many other examples of this area of research and these insights open up a major debate on the skills within the labour pool of any economy and given the scale of the workforce in any emerging economy skills becomes a major issue in all business connectivity and, logistics.

With increasing sophistication (and cost) of equipment, functional literacy and skills are becoming a massive issue – the UK has 5 million workers who are considered functionally illiterate and productivity suffers as a direct consequence. And yet, all too often businesses in sectors all along the supply chain do not focus training as much more than basic induction followed by on-the-job experience. There is a case to move from basic training to performance improvement and continuous assessment. For example, the use of simulators rather than actual equipment is a case in point. This entry seeks to trigger that debate as a key element of Transformational Logistics in emerging markets.